Chaplin et al. Examining unbiased hit rates thus provides information on facial emotion recognition abilities considering both sensitivity and specificity to individual emotion categories [ 34 ], i. Abstract Small but significant gender differences in emotion expressions have been reported for adults, with women showing greater emotional expressivity, especially for positive emotions and internalizing negative emotions such as sadness.
Thus, after presenting our model, we discuss future directions for research on other cultural groups and discuss potential applications of our model to understanding of gender and emotion in childhood in different cultural contexts. For this reason, emoticons are widely used in online communication to replace non-verbal behaviors that emphasize or clarify one's feelings.
In addition, the video set used in the current study includes expression intensity variations and a wider range of emotion categories than has been used in most previous research, including the six basic emotions, three complex emotions contempt, embarrassment, prideand neutral.
Women were not universally more expressive than men, as men were more likely to demonstrate anger-based facial behaviors than women.
Social learning theories posit that children are encouraged either through explicit teaching, through modeling, or through subtle encouragement of certain behaviors by socialization agents, to adopt gender-role consistent behaviors e.
This coding system tied facial behaviors e. This may have subtly socialized girls to increase sadness expressions but limit anger, at least in some contexts.