An analysis of the topic of the aristotle and the aspect of justice
Salkever, Stephen G.
Aristotle justice quote
Richardson eds Liberalism and the Good, London: Routledge, , pp. He imagines four hypothetical scenarios, in which either human nature would be radically different utterly altruistic or brutally selfish or our environment would be so with everything we desire constantly and abundantly available or so destitute that hardly anyone could survive , allegedly showing that, in each of them, justice would not be a virtue at all. A just person typically does just actions, though committing one or a few unjust actions does not automatically render that person unjust, especially if the unjust behavior stems from an error or sudden passion; on the other hand, a person who is typically inclined to commit unjust actions is a guilty person. In Book IV, after cobbling together his blueprint of the ideal republic, Socrates asks Glaucon where justice is to be found, but they agree they will have to search for it together. Reeve, C. Wilson, James L. Let us now see how Mill applies his utilitarian theory to three problems of justice that are still timely today. It also leaves Aristotle with little viable means of establishing a universal perspective that will respect the equal dignity of all humans, as such. This vitally affects moral and political theory, in general, and views on justice, in particular. The rationalistic theories of Plato and Augustine and the classical empirical theories of Aristotle and Aquinas all leave us hoping that preferable alternatives might be forthcoming. Marx explains the ideal of socio-economic equality he advocates with the famous slogan that all should be required to contribute to society to the extent of their abilities and all should be allowed to receive from society in accordance with their needs.
Also of interest is the Constitution of Athens, an account of the history and workings of the Athenian democracy. But the problem with this bromide is that of determining who deserves what. Balot ed.
What is justice
He clarifies his idea that he is referring to politically powerful people in leadership positions. With this as a backdrop, we should be able to see what motivated Plato and Aristotle to seek a strong alternative. Whereas Kant was the first great deontologist, Mill subscribed to the already established tradition of utilitarianism. Cooper, John M. But, next, even the strongest leaders are sometimes mistaken about what is to their own advantage, raising the question of whether people ought to do what leaders suppose is to their own advantage or only what actually is so. The rationalistic theories of Plato and Augustine and the classical empirical theories of Aristotle and Aquinas all leave us hoping that preferable alternatives might be forthcoming. Lindsay, Thomas K. Why should we, morally speaking, act for the sake of agreeableness and utility? Hobbes Whereas Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, and Aquinas all offer accounts of justice that represent alternatives to Sophism, Thomas Hobbes, the English radical empiricist, can be seen as resurrecting the Sophist view that we can have no objective knowledge of it as a moral or political absolute value. Richardson eds Liberalism and the Good, London: Routledge, , pp.
While Plato accepted slavery as a legitimate social institution but argued for equal opportunity for women, in his Politics, Aristotle accepts sexual inequality while actively defending slavery.
Croix, London: Duckworth,pp. He has an intricate theory of property rights, which we can only touch upon here. It is not acceptable to use power against others to stop them from hurting only themselves.
Muzio, G. Justice is a rational mean between the vicious extremes of deficiency and excess, having to do with our external actions regarding others. He clarifies his idea that he is referring to politically powerful people in leadership positions. Passages in Aristotle are cited as follows: title of treatise italics , book Roman numeral , chapter Arabic numeral , line reference. Miller, Jr. Richardson eds Liberalism and the Good, London: Routledge, , pp. Thrasymachus cannot mean physically stronger, for then inferior humans would be superior to finer folks like them. Thus, for instance, those who are equally citizens are not necessarily equal in political virtue, and those who are financially richer are not necessarily morally or mentally superior. His theory as we have considered it here is a paradigmatic example of the view of justice being advocated in this article, as essentially requiring respect for persons as free, rational agents. The former comprises strict duties of justice, while the latter comprises broader duties of merit. As we shall see in this section, views of justice as relative to human needs and interests became prominent as they had not been for a couple of millennia. Mulhern, J. The brief answer is, their relativism and their skepticism. Mara, and Henry S.
But for each of these claims, we can ask, so what? This included such important post-Aristotelians as the enormously influential Roman eclectic Cicero, such prominent Stoics as Marcus Aurelius a Roman emperor and Epictetus a Greek slave of the Romansand neo-Platonists like Plotinus.
Salkever, Stephen S. London: Duckworth,pp.
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